While the newspapers screamed of war overseas, the real war was just beginning back home.
After four long years of grueling trench warfare, thousands of Canadian soldiers left Europe in 1918 to return home. As they disembarked from trains across the country, they unknowingly helped spread the Spanish Flu, the deadliest flu to ever occur in human history.
From 1918 to 1920, the Spanish Flu reached every corner of the globe. In the north it wiped out complete Inuit communities, and in the South Pacific whole countries were infected. Worldwide, the Spanish Flu killed between 20 and 100 million people. Canada was fortunate, but we still lost between 30,000 and 50,000 people, a number only slightly lower than that of the war.
By the time the flu arrived in Regina in the autumn of 1918, Eastern Canada was under a state of crisis. Schools, churches and public spaces were shut down and hospitals were filling up with victims. The first recorded case of the Spanish Flu in Saskatchewan was on October 1st, 1918. By November 2nd, there were 1,977 cases in Regina and 144 people had died.
In total, 10% of Regina's population would become infected and 330 people would die. While devastating to the city, the province suffered much more, with over 5,000 people having succumbed to the virus. Unlike normal strains of the flu, the Spanish flu targeted young, healthy adults, mostly between the ages of 20 and 40, many of which were the very soldiers that fought for our country overseas.
Note: The below tables are of Saskatchewan-wide data, not just Regina.
Regina followed in the steps of Eastern Canada, and under the influence of the Influenza Relief Committee, they began a complete shutdown of public spaces. Stores were either closed or had their hours cut, churches had their doors sealed and schools were converted into hospitals, in which teachers would take on the roll of nurses. Regina's booming theatre district was also shut down, and over 100 people were left unemployed.
By November 6th, 1918, only four days after the earlier report of 144 people having died, The Leader wrote that the number had climbed to 277.
At one point, according to the Western Development Museum in Saskatoon, there were 57 bodies in Speers Funeral Chapel waiting to be buried. To get the bodies underground as fast as possible, funeral services were reduced to 45 minutes, and then again to 15 minutes. Gravediggers were hired by the dozens to meet the demand.
According to local historians, many of these victims ended up buried in the northern edge of the Regina Cemetery, in an area unofficially referred to as "Potter's Field". According to the City of Regina Cemetery, all the bodies in this area are accounted for and can be seen online, but their online archives only list 4 deaths having occurred in 1918. This number is far from the November 6th, 1918 newspaper headline and implies that there must be some graves that are not accounted for.
Things were different 100 years ago, and the possibility of there being unmarked graves is not unheard of. Nobody can blame the actions of grave diggers, cemetery record keepers or funeral directors. Nobody is at fault for losing track of these victims. The city was under a state of crisis, and something had to be done, but after 100 years it's time to set it right. I have begun a GoFundMe campaign to raise money for a memorial for the victims of the Spanish Flu, both those with and without marked graves. The Regina Cemetery is a treasure trove of history, dating back to the very beginnings of our city and I feel it's about time the Spanish Flu victims were included in it.
Along with my GoFundMe campaign, I will also be doing tours of the cemetery throughout the summer. These tours still have to be approved by the city, but once they have begun, money raised by them will be going towards the memorial and to print more copies of the Regina Cemetery Walking Tour - Tour 1 and Regina Cemetery Walking Tour - Tour 2. These two books and the material within them inspired this entire project.
These tours and my campaign for the victims of the Spanish Flu will be featured on Global Regina's "Focus Saskatchewan" at 6:30 PM this May 13th, and at 11 AM and 6:30 PM on May 14th. You can see a teaser for it on their Facebook page.
This project would not be possible without the hard work of the Regina Ethnic Pioneers Cemetery Walking Tour Inc (REWT) and individuals like Eilleen Schuster, Erica Frank of the Regina Cemetery and Dana Turgeon of the City of Regina Historical Information & Preservation Supervisor along with countless others.
And, as always, a big thank you to my sweetheart Jessica Nuttall for proof reading a countless number of my articles. I couldn't do any of this without you. I love you.
Before You Go!
Between 1918 and 1920, over 330 Regina citizens died from the Spanish Flu. In May 2017 I began a GoFundMe to fund a memorial for these victims so that they can finally rest in peace. Any donation or shares would be greatly appreciated. For more information, please visit my blog article about the Regina Spanish Flu Memorial Fund.
Nestled between the impressive Mount Royal and the majestic St. Lawrence River is Montreal, a city known for its festivals, abstract art, history and mosaic of countless cultures. Montreal is the second largest city in Canada, with a population floating around four million people. While the city is a dynamic mix of Canada's two primary cultures – French and English – there are areas of the city that are culturally specific, such as Little Italy, Greektown and Chinatown. Known for its artistic and liberal mindedness, Montreal also boasts the largest community of homosexuals in North America in their very own "Gay Village".
Being nearly 375 years old, Montreal was pivotal to the creation of New France and Canada and at a time held control over every waterway from the St. Lawrence down to the Gulf of Mexico. Having such incredible influence over the western part of the New World, Montreal hosted the "Great Peace of Montreal" in 1701, which started sixteen years of peace between the French and over 40 different First Nation tribes in North America.
Since its early days, Montreal has been one of the most influential cities in Canada. Montreal housed "internment camps" during World War I, became an ideal location for Americans looking for alcohol during Prohibition, and was the official residence of the Luxembourg royal family during World War II. Montreal held host to the incredible Expo 67, showcasing some of the most incredible architecture of that decade. The seventies saw serious political reformation in Montreal, with many Americans arriving, fleeing the Vietnam Draft. The late seventies paralyzed the city as a terrorist organization, the Front de libération du Québec, detonated explosives throughout the city and kidnapped and killed political figures. These actions forced the Prime Minster to enact the "War Measures Act" and deploy the military into the city to apprehend the terrorists. The eighties and nineties saw two referendums in the province of Quebec to separate from Canada, with Montreal playing a major role in both decisions. The last referendum in 1995 ended with 51% percent of Quebecers wanting to remain part of Canada and 49% wanting to separate.
I was recently asked if I preferred my time in Montreal or Quebec City more, and while Montreal is a gorgeous city, decorated with thousands of green copper spires, hosts incredible festivals, has some of the most fantastic food I have ever tasted, and is spotted with beautiful parks, there was just something about Quebec City that spoke to me. Being over four hundred years old, Quebec City is one of the last remaining "walled cities" in North America, and is the only one north of Mexico. Quebec City was the location of some of the greatest conflicts in Canadian history, including the Siege of Quebec by the British.
Belonging to three very different countries (France, England, and Canada) in its four hundred year existence, Quebec City is a mixing pot of old traditions, new ideas, cobblestone streets and modern architecture. Since there is so much to see in Quebec City, I figured I would narrow it down to a couple and let you discover the rest! Here is "8 Places to Visit in Quebec City".
Old Quebec envelopes several locations listed below, and will be where you are spending the most of your time. This historic neighborhood was first developed during the early 1600s and has since expanded to become two separate areas: Upper Town (Haute-Ville) and Lower Town (Basse-Ville).
Love poutine, Justin Trudeau and just about everything Québécois? G Adventures had the right idea including Montréal in two of their Canadian tours, but Montréal isn't the only noteworthy place to visit in Québec. Now, this tour doesn't give Québec the justice it deserves either, but hopefully it inspires you to take your time to explore the wonders it has to offer. Québec is a beautiful province with a long history, stretching back over four centuries, so this tour is dedicated to the incredible history and culture of French Canada.
Our fictional tour starts in Montréal. If you've read my Five Historic Canadian Cities article last week, you already know Montréal is one of Canada's most lively cities. Packed with some of Canada's most impressive scientific museums, Montréal is also home to an archeological and historical museum, Pointe-à-Callière. Inside one of the most unique buildings in Old Montréal, this museum ventures deep into the history of the city and explores its foundation, its struggles and its changes. With 375 years of history, to uncover this museum starts off with the discovery of Hochelaga and showcases various sections of the original sewer system. The museum also has several illustrations showing the plagues and fires that once decimated the early city. The museum also has an interactive section about the pirates that once terrorized the St. Lawrence River. This museum is one of my absolute favorites, so if you love museums as much as I, you'll want to check it out.